London Underground

先日のロンドンのTubeの面白い話のぞくへんです。

その歴史はこんなにさかのぼります。

Early years

The Metropolitan Railway opened using GWR broad gauge locomotives
The idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with some of the railway termini in its urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, and the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854. The world’s first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, and borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service. The Metropolitan District Railway (commonly known as the District Railway) opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground ‘inner circle’ connecting London’s main-line termini. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Hounslow, Uxbridge, Richmond and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan eventually extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles (80 km) from Baker Street and the centre of London.

For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches (3.10 m) diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street (close to today’s Monument station) and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells. The Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the “twopenny tube”.These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches (3.56 m) and 12 feet 2 inches (3.71 m),whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot (4.9 m) diameter tunnels.

In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies co-operating because of the shared ownership of the inner circle. The District, needing to raise the finance necessary, found an investor in the American Charles Yerkes who favoured a DC system similar to that in use on the City & South London and Central London railways. The Metropolitan Railway protested about the change of plan, but after arbitration by the Board of Trade, the DC system was adopted.

 

歴史は、1861年のキングス・クロス駅付近のメトロポリタン鉄道建設にさかのぼります。

 

ロンドン地下鉄の愛称”the Tube” はチューブに似たトンネルの形状が由来です。

トンネルの断面に合わせた大きさの車両を運用しているんです。

ロンドン地下鉄の最初の開通区間(メトロポリタン鉄道のパディントン駅 – ファリンドン駅間)は、世

界初の都市内地下旅客鉄道でした。

この方式が採用されることとなった1854年以降、財政上その他の障害による遅れはあったが、1863年1

月10日に運用が開始されました。

列車は10分毎に運転され、初日には4万人の利用客でした。

このメトロポリタン鉄道は延伸され、1880年には年間4000万人を輸送するまでに成長しました。

他の鉄道会社もその機会をみて参入、1884年にサークル線が完成しました。

これらの路線は全て蒸気機関牽引の列車であり、地上との換気を行う必要がありました。

よって煤煙によって駅は煤だらけとなり、当時のホームは木造だったのでしばしば小火も出すなど、評判

は必ずしも良好ではなかったそうです。

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